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Les types de documents et les champs associés dans Zotero

Cette page décrit les types de documents Zotero et les champs associés. Ces informations peuvent être utiles pour ajouter manuellement des documents dans Zotero ou sur la manière de remplir les champs pour les types de documents moins communs.

NB: la traduction de cette page est en cours.

Types de documents

Dans Zotero, les types de documents doivent être considérés comme des catégories larges et flexibles. Généralement, il convient de choisir le type de document d'après la manière dont un document doit être référencé. Pour des documents inhabituels, on peut choisir un type de documents suffisamment proche, proposant un ensemble approprié de champs (Livre, Rapport ou Manuscrit peuvent notamment être utilisés de manière satisfaisante pour la plupart des types inhabituels de documents).

Plus d'informations spécifiques sur un type de document (par exemple, un roman par opposition à un livre biographique) peuvent être indiquées dans les champs Type, Format ou Extra, ou en utilisant les marqueurs.

Type de document Description
Illustration Une œuvre d'art (p. ex. une peinture à l'huile, une photographie ou une sculpture). Utilisez également ce type de document pour d'autres types d'images ou de documents visuels (p. ex. un graphique ou une figure dans une publication scientifique).
Enregistrement audio Toute forme d'enregistrement audio, y compris de la musique, des paroles prononcées, des effets sonores, des archives sonores ou des données scientifiques audio.
Projet/proposition de loi Une législation projetée.
Billet de blog Un article ou un billet publié sur un site personnel de blog. Pour des articles en ligne publiés dans le cadre d'une publication en ligne de plus grande envergure (p. ex. les blogs du New York Times), les types de documents Article de magazine ou Article de journal permettent généralement d'obtenir de meilleurs résultats.
Livre Un livre ou un document semblable, publié. Pour les documents gouvernementaux, les rapports techniques, les manuels d'utilisation, etc., utilisez le type Rapport. Le type Livre peut également être adapté pour référencer des documents inhabituels.
Chapitre de livre Une section d'un livre, tel que chapitres, avant-propos, préfaces, introductions, annexes, postfaces, etc.
Affaire Une affaire juridique (une cause, un procès), publiée ou non.
Programme informatique Un logiciel ou tout autre programme informatique.
Article de colloque Un article présenté lors d'un colloque et publié par la suite dans des actes (sous la firme d'un livre, d'un rapport ou du numéro d'un journal). Pour les articles présentés lors d'un colloque mais qui n'ont pas été publiés par la suite, utilisez le type Présentation.
Article de dictionnaire Un article publié comme partie d'un dictionnaire.
Document Un type générique de document. Ce type offre un choix restreint de champs et les styles de citation le prennent mal en charge. Il vaut généralement mieux éviter de s'en servir.
Courriel Un message envoyé par courrier électronique. Ce type de document peut aussi être utilisé pour d'autres formes de communication personnelle.
Article d'encyclopédie Un article ou un chapitre publié dans une encyclopédie.
Film Un film. Utilisez généralement ce type pour des films publiés, fictionnels, artistiques ou documentaires. Pour d'autres types de documents vidéos, utilisez Enregistrement vidéo.
Message de forum Un message sur un forum de discussion en ligne. Utilisez également ce type pour des documents comme des messages Facebook ou des tweets.
Audience Une audience formelle ou un rapport de réunion d'un corps législatif.
Message instantané Un message envoyé par le biais d'une messagerie instantanée ou d'un service de chat. Ce type peut aussi être utilisé pour d'autres formes de communication personnelle.
Interview Un entretien avec une personne, y compris enregistré, transcrit ou dont une trace est conservé sous une autre forme.
Article de revue Un article publié dans une revue académique (imprimée ou en ligne).
Lettre Une lettre envoyée entre des personnes ou des organisations. Ce type peut aussi être utilisé pour d'autres formes de communication personnelle.
Article de magazine Un article publié dans une revue non-académique, populaire, professionnelle ou spécialisée (imprimée ou en ligne).
Manuscrit Un manuscrit non publié. Utilisez ce type tant pour des documents historiques que pour des travaux modernes non publiés (par exemples des manuscrits soumis à un éditeur ou des working papers qui ne font pas l'objet d'une large diffusion). Ce type peut également être utilisé pour d'autres formes de documents historiques ou d'archives, ou être adapté pour référencer des documents inhabituels.
Carte Une carte. Utilisez également ce type pour des modèles géographiques.
Article de journal Un article publié dans un journal (presse quotidienne), imprimé ou en ligne.
Brevet Un brevet délivré pour une invention technique ou pour un design.
Balado (Podcast) Un épisode de podcast (un programme audio ou vidéo diffusé en ligne, souvent sur abonnement).
Présentation Une présentation faite lors d'un colloque, congrès, symposium, conférence, etc. Ce type se réfère à la présentation elle-même, et non à la version écrite publiée dans les actes du colloque (pour de telles versions publiées, utilisez le type Article de colloque).
Émission de radio Une émission de radio, comme une émission d'actualité ou un épisode d'une série radiophonique. Peut concerner aussi des émissions mises en ligne ou produites pour Internet (cf. Podcast).
Rapport Un rapport publié par une organisation, une institution, un département gouvernement ou une entité similaire. Ce type peut être utilisé aussi pour les «working papers» et les «preprints» diffusés sur des dépôts institutionnels. Ce type peut servir aussi à référencer des documents inhabituels.
Acte juridique Une loi ou tout autre document à caractère législatif entré en vigueur.
Thèse Une thèse ou mémoire présenté par un étudiant en vue de l'obtention d'un titre (Master, doctorat, etc), publié ou non.
Émission de TV Une émission télévisée, par exemple un épisode de série.
Enregistrement vidéo Un enregistrement vidéo. Ce type est destiné aux documents vidéo génériques qui ne correspondent pas à un des types plus spécifiques (p. ex. Film ou Émission de TV). Il s'agit par exemple de vidéos YouTube ou de vidéos scientifiques.
Page Web Une page d'un site web. Si possible, il vaut mieux utiliser un des types plus spécifiques (p. ex. Article de magazine, Billet de blog ou Rapport).
Pièce jointe Un fichier annexé indépendant (p. ex. un fichier PDF, JPEG, DOCX, PPTX, XLSX ou ODT). Zotero offre des fonctionnalités limitées concernant ces fichiers indépendants (il n'est p. ex. pas possible de faire des recherches dans leur contenu). Il vaut mieux rattacher les fichiers à de véritables documents Zotero.
Note Une note indépendante. Des notes peuvent être utilisées pour organiser et annoter dans Zotero. Si vous citez une note indépendante, Zotero en utilisera les 120 premiers signes comme titre (et considérera que la note n'a ni auteur ni date). Citer des notes n'est toutefois pas une manière fiable d'ajouter des commentaires à une bibliographie / liste de références.

Pour davantage de types de documents juridiques et historiques, se référer à Legal Citations.

Champs associés dans Zotero

Les champs disponibles pour divers types de documents dans Zotero sont décrits ci-dessous. Les champs sont organisés en catégories en fonction des types de documents auxquels ils sont le plus souvent associés. Certains champs (par exemple Volume, Collection) peuvent également être présents pour d'autres types de documents. Lorsque cela est nécessaire, les significations spécifiques d'un champ pour des types de documents déterminés sont indiquées.

Les champs marqués d'un astérisque (*) ne peuvent pas être utilisés dans les citations.

Champs généraux

Les champs suivants existent pour plusieurs types de documents et ont la même destination pour tous (ou presque tous) les types de documents.

Champ Description
Item Type The broad type of item. Item types are generally determined based on how items should be cited. See descriptions of Zotero’s item types above. You can store more specific information about the type of item (e.g., a novel versus a biography book) in the Type, Format, or Extra fields or using tags.
Creators The individuals or entities creating or associated with a work. An item can have multiple creators of numerous different kinds. See the list of creator types below.
Title The principal title of an item. Should be entered in sentence case.
Abstract Short description of the work
Date Date of publication. Use “Accessed” for the date an electronic resource was accessed.
Short TitleShort form of the title, often without the subtitle. Used mostly in footnote styles for subsequent citations
Language The language of publication for an item. We recommend storing these as two letter ISO language codes followed by two letter ISO country codes (e.g., en-US for American English, or de-DE for German).
The Language field is used to determine whether English Title Casing rules should be applied when formatting item titles. If the stored item data is in English (e.g., for translated titles), enter en-US or en-UK, even if the item content is in another language.

Fields for Books and Periodicals

Field Description
Publication The title of the periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper, etc.) containing the cited item
Book Title
Dictionary Title
Encyclopedia Title
The title of the book, encyclopedia, or dictionary that a chapter, entry, or other book section is published in.
Volume The volume of a (typically multi-volume) publication an article or chapter is published in. For numeric volumes, enter only a number. If the volume should be cited with a volume title, include the title in this field (e.g,. “2: Organizational Psychology”).
Issue The issue number of a periodical. Typically, issues start at 1 at the beginning of each year/volume. If a periodical has only a volume number and no issue number, leave this field blank.
Pages The page range of an item that is part of a larger publication. Also to be used for locators or article numbers in e-journals and ebooks.
Edition The edition of a work. Where numeric, enter as simple Arabic numeral (i.e., “2” rather than “second”).
Series Name of a series that contains multiple publications or presentations (e.g., “Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics”, “Special issue on Advances in Personality Assessment”).
Series Number The number of an item in a series.
Series Title Title of a series of articles within one issue of a journal (e.g., a special section or “From the Cover”). “Section Title” would likely be a more appropriate label. See here for an explanation. For citation purposes, this field is currently equivalent to “Series” and is erroneously used instead of series in some item types (e.g., Audio Recording, Map).
# of Volumes The number of volumes in a collective work.
# of Pages The number of pages in a book.
Section Section of a newspaper.
Place The place of publication for an item.
Publisher The publisher of an item.
Journal Abbr The abbreviated title of a journal. When using the Zotero Word or LibreOffice plugins, Zotero can automatically abbreviate titles using the MEDLINE list. Use this field to enter abbreviations using other systems or for generating bibliographies outside of a word processor.
ISBN The International Standard Book Number of a book or other publication.
ISSN The International Standard Serial Number of a periodical or series publication.
Field Description
Accessed Date an electronic resource was accessed. Typically filled automatically. You can enter “today,” “yesterday,” and “tomorrow” to quickly enter the corresponding date.
DOI The Digital Object Identifier of an item. For items other than journal articles, the DOI can be stored in Extra. See Citing Fields from Extra below.
URL URL (web-address) where the full item was accessed. Do not use this field for links to catalog records (e.g., libraries or Google Books) or abstracts—these should be instead added as links.
Archive Mainly for archival resources, the archive where an item was found. Also used for repositories, such as government report databases, institutional repositories, or subject repositories.
Loc. in Archive The location of an item in an archive, such as a box and folder number or other relevant location information from the finding aid. Include the subcollection/call number, box number, and folder number together in this field. For additional tips on citing archival sources in Zotero, see here.
Library Catalog The catalog or database an item was imported from. This field is used, for example, in the MLA citation style. Uses of this field are broader than actual library catalogs.
Call Number The call number of an item in a library. For citing archival sources, also include the Call Number in Loc. in Archive (if applicable).

Fields for Reports and Theses

Type
Report Type
The type of report (e.g., “Technical report”, “CPTO Technical Brief”) or thesis (e.g., “Doctoral dissertation”, “Ph.D. thesis”, “Master thesis”; the word 'thesis' or 'dissertation' should be included where applicable).
Report Number The number of a report. Do not include the words “Number”, “No.”, “Nº”, “№”, or similar; these will be added automatically by the citation style.
Institution
University
The institution publishing a report or the university granting the degree for a thesis.

Fields for Presentations and Performances

Proceedings Title The title of the conference proceedings where a conference paper was published.
Conference Name
Meeting Name
The name of the conference or meeting where a conference paper or presentation was presented.
Place For Presentations, the place where the meeting was held or the presentation was made. For Conference Papers (published in a conference proceedings), use this field for the place where the proceedings was published. If separate locations are needed for the publication place and the location of the conference, leave this field blank and add Event Place and Publisher Place fields to Extra (see Citing Fields from Extra below).
Type The type or format of presentation (e.g., “Poster”, “Symposium”, “Invited address”).

Fields for Recordings and Broadcasts

Format
File Type
The format of an audio or video recording (e.g. “DVD,” “CD,” “MP3,” etc.).
Running Time The running time of any type of recording. Enter with the unit (e.g., 120 mins).
Program Title The title of a radio or TV show of which an episode is part (e.g., “This American Life” or “60 Minutes”).
Episode Number The episode number of a podcast or TV/radio broadcast.
Network The network broadcasting a TV or radio show.
Label The recording label distributing an audio recording in a market.
Distributor The organization distributing a film in a market.
Studio The studio producing a video recording.
Genre The genre of film (e.g., “horror”).

Fields for Images, Artwork, and Maps

Medium The type of artwork or figure or the medium it was created with (e.g., “Watercolor painting”, “Wood sculpture”, “X-ray Crystallograph”, “Scatterplot”).
Artwork Size The dimensions of the artwork or figure.
Scale The scale of a map or model.
Type For maps, a description of the specific type or genre of map.

Fields for Primary Sources and Personal Communications

Medium For interviews, the format in which an interview was recorded (e.g., “Audio Recording”, “Video Recording”, “Transcript”).
Type For letters, a description of the specific type or purpose of letter (e.g., “Private correspondence). For manuscripts, a description of the type or status of the manuscript (e.g., “Unpublished manuscript”, “Manuscript submitted for publication”, “Working paper”).
Subject The title of an email.

Fields for Websites

Website Title
Blog Title
The title of the blog or website containing a post or specific web page.
Forum/Listserv Title The forum or listserv where a post was made.
Website Type Rarely used. Describes the genre of a webpage such as “personal blog” or “intranet”.
Post Type A description of the specific type of forum post (e.g., “Tweet” or “Facebook comment”).

Fields for Software

Version The version of a computer program.
System The operating system or platform a computer program is written for.
Company The organization publishing a computer program.
Language The programming language a computer program is written in. Note that Computer Program uses the Language field differently than other items.

Additional Fields

Rights* The copyright terms, license, or release status for an item.
Date Added The date and time an item was added in Zotero. This field is filled automatically.
Date Modified The date and time an item was last modified in Zotero. This field is filled and updated automatically.
Extra Free field for storing additional information. You can also store additional variables not included in an item’s fields that can be used when making citations and bibliographies . See Citing Fields from Extra below.

For additional and more flexible support for citing legal materials, see Legal Citations.

Legislation and hearings
Name of Act The full title of a statute.
Bill Number The identification number assigned to a proposed piece of legislation.
Code The name of the code in which a bill or statute is published.
Code Volume The volume number of the code containing a bill or statute.
Code Number The identification number assigned to a piece of legislation in the code in which it is published.
Public Law Number The identification number assigned to an enacted piece of legislation. See here for more details.
Date Enacted The date a statute was enacted.
Section The section of a bill or statute being cited.
Committee The committee holding a hearing.
Document Number The document identification number assigned to a published transcript or record of a committee hearing.
Code Pages The pages in the code volume containing a bill or statute.
Legislative Body* The legislative body (parliament, senate, etc.) debating a bill, holding a hearing, or passing legislation.
Session The session of a legislative body in which a bill was introduced, statute was passed, or hearing was held.
History Resources related to the procedural history of a bill or statute.
History Resources related to the procedural history of a legal case.
Case Name The title of a legal case.
Court The court where a legal case was argued.
Date Decided The date a legal case was decided.
Docket Number The docket number assigned to a to-be-heard legal case.
Reporter The reporter in which a legal case is published.
Reporter Volume The volume number of the reporter in which a legal case is published.
First Page The first page of the reporter volume on which a case appears.
Patents
Country The country issuing a patent.
Assignee The entity to which a ownership rights for a patent are assigned.
Issuing Authority The authority or office reviewing the application and issuing the patent.
Patent Number The identification number assigned to a patent.
Filing Date The date on which a patent application was filed.
Issue Date The date on which a patent is formally issued.
Application Number The identification number assigned to a patent application.
Priority Numbers The international application number of a patent used for priority rights claims.
References Resources related to the history of a patent.
Legal Status The legal status of a patent or application.

Item Creators

Creator types marked with an asterisk (*) cannot be used in citations.

Author The principal author or creator of a work. Enter authors (and other creators) in the order that they should be cited.
Enter names of persons in two-field (Last/Family, First/Given) mode. Enter names of institutions or organizations in one-field mode.
Editor The editor of an item or the broader publication an item is part of (e.g., book, journal). If a distinction is drawn between the textual editor and the managing editor/publishing editor/editorial director (Directeur de la Publication in French), use editor for the textual editor and enter Editorial Director in Extra. See Citing Fields from Extra below.
Series Editor The overseeing editor of a series of items.
Translator The translator of an item. If the same person is both the editor and translator of a work, enter their name as both an Editor and a Translator in separate fields.
Contributor* Other individuals or entities associated with a work that should not be included in citations (e.g., individuals listed after “with” on a book's cover). Used as the author for Hearing items.
Reviewed Author The name of the author whose work is being reviewed.
Artist The creator of a piece of artwork or a figure. The author for Artwork items.
Performer The individual performing on an audio recording. The author for Audio Recording items.
Composer The composer of the music on an audio recording.
Words By* The individual who wrote the words in an audio recording (e.g., the lyricist or speechwriter).
Cast Member* A member of the cast of a broadcast or performance.
Director The director of a broadcast or recording. The author for Film Recording, Video Recording, Radio Broadcast, and TV Broadcast items.
Producer* A producer for a film, recording, or broadcast.
Scriptwriter* The person writing the script for a film or broadcast.
Podcaster The host of a podcast. The author for Podcast items.
Guest* A guest on a podcast, radio broadcast, or TV broadcast.
Cartographer The principal creator of a map. The author for Map item.
Programmer The programmer for a computer program. The author for Computer Program items.
Presenter The person giving a presentation. The author for Presentation items.
Interview With The person being interviewed. The author for Interview items.
Interviewer The person asking questions during an interview.
Commenter* An individual commenting on a blog post.
Recipient The person receiving a letter, email, or message.
Sponsor The principal author of a bill or piece of legislation. The author for Bill and Legislation items.
Cosponsor* Cosponsors or endorsers of a bill or piece of legislation.
Counsel* The counsel arguing a legal case.
Inventor The creator of an invention. The author for Patent items.
Attorney/Agent* The attorney or agent representing an inventor when filing a patent.

Role Labels for Media Creators

For citations to films, recordings, and broadcasts, Zotero currently has limited to support for labeling producers, scriptwriters, and some other Creator roles.

To label directors, leave the main Zotero field blank (or enter the names as Contributor) and enter the director names using Director in Extra. See Citing Fields from Extra below.

All Creator roles (Director, Producer, Scriptwriter, etc.) can also be labelled by entering the names using the default author role for the item (Performer for Audio Recording, Podcaster for Podcast, and Director for Film, Radio Broadcast, TV Broadcast, and Video Recording) and adding the appropriate labels in parentheses after the authors' first names or last names as appropriate for your citation style—e.g., MacNaughton || Ian (Producer) for APA style. Note that the labels will be rendered verbatim in citations; enter abbreviated terms (e.g., “Prod.”) here as needed.

See also Media Creator Roles

Additional Item Types and Fields

Citeable Item Types not Included in Zotero

These item types are not yet formally supported in Zotero. For citation purposes, you can convert an item of a different type to one of these types by entering them in the Extra field in this format: Type: csl-type Type: dataset Type: pamphlet

Item Type CSL Type
Dataset dataset A raw dataset.
Figure figure A figure included in a scientific or academic work.
Musical Score musical_score The written score for a musical work.
Pamphlet pamphlet An informally-published work. Typically smaller and less technical than a Report.
Book Review review-book A review of a book. Enter these as Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper Article, depending on where they were published, by providing a “Reviewed Author” creator.
Treaty treaty A legal treaty between two nations.

Citeable Fields not Included in Zotero

These item fields are not yet formally supported in Zotero. For citation purposes, you can convert an item of a different type to one of these types by entering them in the Extra field in this format: CSL Variable: Value PMID: 123456 Status: in press Original Date: 1886-04-01 Director: Kubrick || Stanley

Field CSL Variable
PMID PMID The PubMed identifier.
PMCID PMCID The PubMed Central identifier.
Status status The publication status of an item (e.g., “forthcoming”, “in press”, “advance online publication”).
Submitted Date Submitted The date an item was submitted for publication.
Reviewed Title Reviewed Title The title of a reviewed work.
Chapter Number Chapter Number The number of the chapter within a book.
Archive Place Archive Place The geographic location of an archive.
Event Date Event Date The date an event took place. Enter in ISO format (year-month-day).
Event Place Event Place The geographic location of an event.
Original Date Original Date The original date an item was published. Enter in ISO format (year-month-day).
Original Title Original Title The original title of a work (e.g., the untranslated title).
Original Publisher Original Publisher The publisher of the original version of an item (e.g., the untranslated version).
Original Publisher Place Original Publisher Place The geographic location of the publisher of the original version of an item (e.g., the untranslated version).
Original Author Original Author A type of Creator. The original creator of a work.
Director Director A type of Creator. The director of a film, recording, or broadcast. In Zotero, “Director” is mapped to CSL author. If you need special labels for directors—“(Dir.)”, enter the Director label in Extra.
Editorial Director Editorial Director A type of Creator. The managing editor of a publication (“Directeur de la Publication” in French).
Illustrator Illustrator A type of Creator. The illustrator of a work.

Citing Fields from Extra

If a Zotero item type is missing fields that are needed for citations, it is possible to add these fields to the Extra field.

Enter each variable on a separate line at the top of the Extra field in the following format: CSL Variable: Content

For example: DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02591-07 Original Date: 1824 PMCID: PMC3531190

With the exception of Item Type (CSL Type) and Date variables (CSL Issued, etc.), variables entered in Extra will not override corresponding values entered in proper Zotero fields.

Dates

Dates entered in Extra will override the date entered in Zotero's Date field. Dates must be entered in ISO format (year-month-day). Date ranges can be entered in this format: Issued: 2001-12-15/2001-12-31

Names

For Creator variables, separate two-field names entered in Extra with two vertical bar characters: '||' like this: Editorial Director: De Gaulle || Charles